The emergence of more aggressive forms of leukemia in adults prompts a need for early detection and new therapeutic approaches to achieve better clinical outcomes. In a novel step forward, researchers from the Cancer Science Institute of Singapore (CSI Singapore) at the National University of Singapore (NUS) have identified covalently closed circular RNAs (circRNAs) from key genes involved in leukemia development and provided a greater understanding of their roles in hematological malignancies.
Xie et.al. conducted a study to evaluate whether this survival benefit of combination chemotherapy is present in elderly patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The researchers concluded that elderly patients, even those older than 75 years, with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma benefited from combination chemotherapy.
Ghanem et.al. conducted a study to analyze the impact of the time interval between hysterectomy and initiation of adjuvant radiation treatment on overall survival among women with early stage endometrial carcinoma using the National Cancer Database. The researchers concluded that time interval between hysterectomy and initiation of adjuvant radiation treatment was not an independent predictor of overall survival in women with early stage endometrial carcinoma.
Viani et.al. conducted a study to summarize existing data and identify trends in overall survival, local control, and toxicity after re-SABR in patients with recurrence of lung cancer. The researchers concluded that Re-SABR produces satisfactory local control and overall survival rates with an acceptable rate of toxicity.
Aaron Chanas-Larue et.al. conducted a study to propose a potential novel treatment strategy for chronic lymphocytic leukemia, repurposing FDA-approved allergy medications in combination with the targeted therapy ibrutinib to enhance drug efficacy. The researchers concluded that three over-the-counter antihistamines, clemastine, desloratadine, and loratadine, preferentially induce cell death via lysosomal membrane permeabilization in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, as compared to normal lymphocytes.
The purpose of this study is to find the most effective dose of radiation therapy to give to breast tumors in a shorter period of time, prior to standard partial mastectomy/axillary surgery.
This research study is being done to understand how patients with chronic cancer pain take their long-acting opioid medications and to develop an intervention to enhance cancer pain management.
Christopher G. Brennan-Jones et.al. identified specific strategies which have shown effectiveness in reducing workplace noise. These include implementation of stricter legislation and also stress upon the need for training in the proper use of earplugs and earmuffs so as to reduce noise exposure to safe levels.
In patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), a once-daily oral regimen of ibrutinib and venetoclax was associated with deep molecular remissions in both bone marrow and peripheral blood, including in patients with high-risk disease, according to investigators in phase 2 CAPTIVATE MRD trial.
Georgios Tsakonas et.al. conducted a study to understand the alterations in gene expression in brain metastasis versus primary tumour as it may increase aggressiveness and impair therapeutic efforts. The researchers concluded identified a unique gene downregulation pattern in brain metastases compared with primary tumours. This finding may explain the lower intracranial efficacy of systemic therapy, especially immunotherapy, in brain metastasis of patients with non–small-cell lung cancer.
Advance in Cancer Prevention addresses all types of cancer, how cancer forms in the body, and their prevention. It focuses on Cancer Vaccines, Chemotherapy, Radioactive Iodine Therapy, Breast Reconstruction Surgery, Mammography, Chemoprevention, aromatase inhibitors, Scintimammography, Oncoplastic surgery, Sumoylation, Dietary Supplements, Cancer Screening, Cancer and Nutrition, Exercise and Cancer, Alternative Cancer Medicines, Stem cell transplants for cancer prevention, Naturopathic Treatments, Clinical Naturopathy, Cancer Prevention from nuts.
As many as half of patients diagnosed with metastatic HER2-positive breast cancer will see their cancer spread to their brain. Though brain metastases, or "Brain Mets," are rare, they are exceedingly difficult to treat, so these patients experience poor outcomes. At this year’s ASCO meeting, Dr. Nancy Lin of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute presented promising results from the HER2CLIMB trial for these patients. In this video BCRF talks with Dr. Lin about her research focus, Brain Mets, and HER2CLIMB’s findings.
Watch Dr. Jamie Studts discuss the quality implementation of lung cancer screening and share his thoughts on optimizing community-based implementation.
This is a recording of the American Lung Association’s Lung Cancer Precision Medicine Summit which took place on June 18, 2020. Oncologists Dr. Erin Schenk and Dr. Ibiayi Dagogo-Jack discuss which precision medicine treatment is available for lung cancer patients and promising new research. Carly Ornstein, National Director of Lung Cancer Education, gives a high-level overview of precision medicine and discusses new resources.
Dr. Pasi Janne, Director of Dana-Farber Cancer Institute’s Lowe Center for Thoracic Oncology and Belfer Center for Applied Cancer Science, and colleagues discuss how COVID-19 is changing the screening, management, and treatment of thoracic cancer, including:
- The impact on lung cancer screening
- The role of telemedicine in caring for cancer patients
- Managing clinical trials
Polycythemia vera is one of the myeloproliferative neoplasms that is distinguished by the uncontrolled production of blood cells and an increased red cell mass due to acquired JAK2 mutation. It has many complications and it might increase the risk of other tumors. However, it does not cause hypercalcemia and is rarely associated with parathyroid adenoma. Ahmed M. Abdalhadi and Mohamed A. Yassin report on a 64-year-old female with polycythemia vera found to have hypercalcemia due to parathyroid adenoma.
Durvalumab, a programmed cell death ligand 1 inhibitor, induces various immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including lung injury. However, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare type of lung injury due to immune checkpoint inhibitors. A 76-year-old man with c-stage IIIA squamous cell carcinoma of the lung received maintenance durvalumab therapy after chemoradiotherapy. He developed dyspnea and malaise after 11 cycles of durvalumab. Chest computed tomography showed rapidly spreading bilateral ground-glass opacity in the lungs. We diagnosed DAH by hemosiderin-laden macrophages in bloody bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Despite mechanical ventilation, steroids, and cyclophosphamide, he died of respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed that fresh and old bleeding areas coexisted, and neither pulmonary vasculitis nor diffuse alveolar damage was detected microscopically. Furthermore, CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were observed in the lung interstitium, whereas CD20+ and CD4+ lymphocytes were scarcely detected. We report the first case of durvalumab-induced DAH. We should be alert to irAEs with DAH as a potential differential diagnosis of lung injury during durvalumab treatment.
Only three cases of patients suffering from a localized chronic form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have been published so far. This is the first case report of a patient with a localized chronic form of LCH of the femur, which was successfully treated with percutaneous image-guided RFA, and who was evaluated pre-RFA and followed up post-RFA for a period of 48 months, in order to validate the safety and efficacy of this method and to obtain imaging studies depicting the actual in situ changes taking place post-RFA. RFA was proved to be a safe and efficient method when treating patients with a localized chronic form of LCH.
Recent data suggest that BRCA mutation carriers younger than 40 may not benefit from mammography in addition to MRI. Our objective was to evaluate screening modalities utilized in a high-risk population. Clinicopathologic data were abstracted for patients followed in a high-risk clinic from 2007 to 2017. Three patients were diagnosed younger than 40, 1 on a mammogram, and 2 on MRI. The patient diagnosed on mammogram had no prior MRI and the lesion was seen on follow-up MRI. Interval screening MRI identified DCIS in BRCA patients with a previous normal mammogram and cancers diagnosed on mammograms were all identified on follow-up MRI. These findings support further evaluation of MRI alone until age 40 in BRCA mutation carriers.