Australian researchers have shown for the first time that a new drug used to treat breast cancer patients damages the store of immature eggs in the ovaries of mice. The authors of the study, which is published today in Human Reproduction, one of the world's leading reproductive medicine journals, say the drug olaparib is being used to treat young as well as older women with breast cancer that is driven by mutations in the BRCA1/2 genes, but without knowing its effect on fertility.
Ping Du et.al. conducted a study to assess the tumor killing effect of ceritinib plus PD‐L1 inhibitor in vitro by quantitative RT‐PCR, flow cytometry, ELISA, western blot analysis, PBMC coculture system, and plasmid and transfection experiments. The researchers concluded that Ceritinib and PD‐L1 inhibitor combined produced a synergistic antineoplastic efficacy in vitro and in vivo, which provides a key insight and proof of principle for evaluating CER plus PD‐L1 blockade as combination therapy in clinical therapeutic practice.
Ying Wang et.al. conducted a study in 70 subjects with advanced B-cell cancers receiving CAR-T-cell therapy, 12 of whom had chronic HBV-infection (HBsAg positive) and 29 with resolved HBV-infection (HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive). Safety and efficacy were compared with 29 subjects without HBV-infection. The researchers concluded that chronic and resolved HBV-infection do not affect the safety and efficacy of CAR-T-cell therapy.
Kylee J. Veazey et.al. conducted a study to assess the effect of CARM1 inhibition in reducing histone acetyltransferase activity that causes synthetic lethality in CREBBP/EP300-mutated lymphomas. The researches concluded that CARM1i further reduces the histone acetyltransferase activity of CBP genome wide and downregulates CBP-target genes in DLBCL cells, resulting in a synthetic lethality that leverages the mutational status of CREBBP/EP300 as a biomarker for the use of small-molecule inhibitors of CARM1 in DLBCL and other cancers.
For the first time in its long and storied history, hormonal therapy for advanced prostate cancer has received broad and detailed attention in a clinical practice guideline. AUA guideline provides direction for the use of hormonal therapy (or androgen-deprivation therapy, ADT) for men with multiple categories of advanced and metastatic prostate cancer.
The purpose of this study is to find the most effective dose of radiation therapy to give to breast tumors in a shorter period of time, prior to standard partial mastectomy/axillary surgery.
This research study is being done to understand how patients with chronic cancer pain take their long-acting opioid medications and to develop an intervention to enhance cancer pain management.
Christopher G. Brennan-Jones et.al. identified specific strategies which have shown effectiveness in reducing workplace noise. These include implementation of stricter legislation and also stress upon the need for training in the proper use of earplugs and earmuffs so as to reduce noise exposure to safe levels.
In patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL), a once-daily oral regimen of ibrutinib and venetoclax was associated with deep molecular remissions in both bone marrow and peripheral blood, including in patients with high-risk disease, according to investigators in phase 2 CAPTIVATE MRD trial.
Georgios Tsakonas et.al. conducted a study to understand the alterations in gene expression in brain metastasis versus primary tumour as it may increase aggressiveness and impair therapeutic efforts. The researchers concluded identified a unique gene downregulation pattern in brain metastases compared with primary tumours. This finding may explain the lower intracranial efficacy of systemic therapy, especially immunotherapy, in brain metastasis of patients with non–small-cell lung cancer.
Advance in Cancer Prevention addresses all types of cancer, how cancer forms in the body, and their prevention. It focuses on Cancer Vaccines, Chemotherapy, Radioactive Iodine Therapy, Breast Reconstruction Surgery, Mammography, Chemoprevention, aromatase inhibitors, Scintimammography, Oncoplastic surgery, Sumoylation, Dietary Supplements, Cancer Screening, Cancer and Nutrition, Exercise and Cancer, Alternative Cancer Medicines, Stem cell transplants for cancer prevention, Naturopathic Treatments, Clinical Naturopathy, Cancer Prevention from nuts.
Watch Dr. Sarah McLaughlin, M.D., a surgical oncologist, discuss her strategies for effective breast cancer treatment. When we think about breast cancer treatment, we think about it from a comprehensive strategy of the breast, of what could be going on elsewhere in the body, and then how do we as physicians create a treatment plan that addresses all of those issues. The future of breast cancer care is getting more and more targeted. The more targeted, the better the outcomes and the fewer the side effects.
This lively debate covers the pros and cons involved with endoscopic vs surgical resection, followed by a summary and discussion including recent advances and research on the topic.
Greg Durm, MD, a medical oncologist, and researcher at the Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Comprehensive Cancer Center, describes how researchers are testing if giving an immunotherapy drug called pembrolizumab following surgery is better than observation following surgery in adults with this type of cancer.
Watch this video of the surgical removal of a brain tumor that originated from the lung. The tumor had resulted in obstructive hydrocephalus. Case presentation by Dr. Farhad Limonadi MD, director of neurosurgery at Eisenhower Medical Center.
Polycythemia vera is one of the myeloproliferative neoplasms that is distinguished by the uncontrolled production of blood cells and an increased red cell mass due to acquired JAK2 mutation. It has many complications and it might increase the risk of other tumors. However, it does not cause hypercalcemia and is rarely associated with parathyroid adenoma. Ahmed M. Abdalhadi and Mohamed A. Yassin report on a 64-year-old female with polycythemia vera found to have hypercalcemia due to parathyroid adenoma.
Durvalumab, a programmed cell death ligand 1 inhibitor, induces various immune-related adverse events (irAEs), including lung injury. However, diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare type of lung injury due to immune checkpoint inhibitors. A 76-year-old man with c-stage IIIA squamous cell carcinoma of the lung received maintenance durvalumab therapy after chemoradiotherapy. He developed dyspnea and malaise after 11 cycles of durvalumab. Chest computed tomography showed rapidly spreading bilateral ground-glass opacity in the lungs. We diagnosed DAH by hemosiderin-laden macrophages in bloody bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Despite mechanical ventilation, steroids, and cyclophosphamide, he died of respiratory failure. The autopsy revealed that fresh and old bleeding areas coexisted, and neither pulmonary vasculitis nor diffuse alveolar damage was detected microscopically. Furthermore, CD3+ and CD8+ lymphocytes were observed in the lung interstitium, whereas CD20+ and CD4+ lymphocytes were scarcely detected. We report the first case of durvalumab-induced DAH. We should be alert to irAEs with DAH as a potential differential diagnosis of lung injury during durvalumab treatment.
Only three cases of patients suffering from a localized chronic form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) have been published so far. This is the first case report of a patient with a localized chronic form of LCH of the femur, which was successfully treated with percutaneous image-guided RFA, and who was evaluated pre-RFA and followed up post-RFA for a period of 48 months, in order to validate the safety and efficacy of this method and to obtain imaging studies depicting the actual in situ changes taking place post-RFA. RFA was proved to be a safe and efficient method when treating patients with a localized chronic form of LCH.
Recent data suggest that BRCA mutation carriers younger than 40 may not benefit from mammography in addition to MRI. Our objective was to evaluate screening modalities utilized in a high-risk population. Clinicopathologic data were abstracted for patients followed in a high-risk clinic from 2007 to 2017. Three patients were diagnosed younger than 40, 1 on a mammogram, and 2 on MRI. The patient diagnosed on mammogram had no prior MRI and the lesion was seen on follow-up MRI. Interval screening MRI identified DCIS in BRCA patients with a previous normal mammogram and cancers diagnosed on mammograms were all identified on follow-up MRI. These findings support further evaluation of MRI alone until age 40 in BRCA mutation carriers.